The AOLS issues licences to Cadastral (Legal Boundary) surveyors and Certificates of Registration (C of R) in other branches of professional land surveying, namely Geodesy, Geographic Information Management, Hydrography and Photogrammetry. Applicants must comply with the academic requirements, the term of articles and pass the professional examinations set out by the Academic and Experience Requirements Committee for their particular branch. All members are entitled to use the designation OLS or OLIP (Ontario Land Information Professional).
Although the C of R branches of surveying are not regulated by law, practitioners in these branches who are members of the AOLS are indicating that they belong to a professional organization and are governed by a code of ethics and standards of practice.
The practice of cadastral surveying, as defined in Section 1 of the Surveyors Act, means " … advising on, reporting on, conducting or supervising the conducting of surveys to establish, locate, define or describe lines, boundaries or corners of parcels of land or land covered with water;" The licensed Ontario Land Surveyor provides a professional opinion on the location of boundaries, using historical research, a knowledge of statute and common law, and the latest technology in measurement and data processing. Only licensed members of the Association of Ontario Land Surveyors can carry out cadastral (legal boundary) surveys in the Province of Ontario.
Cadastral surveyors produce several types of survey plans, which are explained in detail in the Boundaries and Your Land section of this web site.
This is the science of locating and relating the position of objects on the earth relative to each other, while taking into account the size, shape and gravity of the earth. This type of survey is suited for large areas and long lines and is used to find the precise location of basic points needed for establishing control for other surveys. Horizontal and vertical networks that span the country form the primary spatial reference system used in mapping, boundary demarcation, and other geomatics applications. Practical applications of geodesy include monitoring earth movement and determining the precise location of points on the surface of the earth, for use in satellite tracking and global navigation.
Ontario Land Surveyors have expanded their geodetic services by using new technology, including specialized software, the Global Positioning System (GPS), interferometric radio astronomy and precise gravity observations.
Geodetic Survey of Canada http://www.geod.nrcan.gc.ca/
Geographic Information Management
Geographic Information Management is a specialized aspect of information management science employing an integrated approach that encompasses the acquisition, processing, analysis, presentation and storage of geographic data. Geographic Information Managers direct the activities of geographic information system specialists engaged in creating and editing geographically indexed databases, used in generating maps and related statistical reports.
GIS is not simply an improved, digital version of the traditional paper map. GIS involves analyzing spatial data rather than simply displaying it. Spatial data used in land information management comes from many sources, including earth-orbiting satellites, air and sea-borne sensors, and ground-based instruments. Data is processed and interpreted using powerful computers and software programs. Computer technology now makes it possible not only to capture and manage the geographic features digitally, but also to integrate attribute or descriptive information about such features in one single relational database environment. The Global Positioning System (GPS), using data from earth-orbiting satellites, has greatly improved the acquisition of positional data. These improvements in time, cost and methodology have enhanced the integration of the positional data with the attribute data.
Geographic Information Management leverages these technologies, making it possible to perform digital spatial analysis of the disparate data sets, thereby providing value-added geographic information in support of decision-making processes. Tasks as varied as planning urban growth, managing a forest, implementing "precision farming", assessing insurance claims, siting an automatic teller machine, routing 911 vehicles, drilling a well, assessing groundwater contamination, designing a cellular phone network, guiding "intelligent" vehicles, assessing the market for manufactured goods, managing a city, operating a utility, improving wildlife habitat, monitoring air quality, assessing environmental impact, designing a road, studying human health statistics, minimizing water pollution, undertaking real estate transactions, preserving wetlands, mapping natural hazards and disasters, providing famine relief, or studying the causes and consequences of global climate change, can be greatly enhanced by the use of some form of geospatial technology.
Urban and Regional Information Systems Association (URISA) http://www.urisa.org/
URISA, Ontario Chapter http://www.urisaoc.on.ca/
Hydrographic surveyors practice the science of measuring and describing the physical features of rivers, lakes, and oceans. Hydrographers survey and chart waters for navigation, determine water depth and measure tide currents. Hydrographic applications include the preparation of navigational charts, tide and current tables, sailing directions and related publications for commercial, industrial and recreational use.
Hydrographic surveys are conducted from a moving platform where depth, time, date and position are collected, collated and recorded. Onboard navigation, differential GPS and data logging systems ensure that the survey vessel follows predetermined tracks to give appropriate coverage of the survey area as depth soundings are recorded.
Hydrographic surveys are required for the production of nautical charts, which are graphic portrayals of the marine environment and are essential for safe navigation. They are used to define courses and navigate ships and boats by the shortest and most economically safe route. Hydrographic surveyors compile sounding information, climatology, water clarity data, tidal information and past survey data when preparing a nautical chart, which shows the nature and form of the coastline or shoreline, the depths of the water and general character and configuration of the sea, lake or river bottom. Locations of dangers to navigation, the rise and fall of the tides, locations of man-made aids to navigation, and the characteristics of the Earth's magnetism may also be noted.
Hydrographers also conduct surveys for dredging and construction projects, submerged pipeline and cable crossings, location of wrecks, and maritime boundary delineation. On a national scale, the Canadian Hydrographic Service (CHS) is responsible for surveying Canadian navigable waterways, and for producing a number of nautical publications, including nautical charts in both paper and digital formats, sailing directions, bathymetric maps, tide and current tables and other related publications.
Canadian Hydrographic Service: www.chs-shc.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/chs/
The Bayfield Institute: www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/regions/CENTRAL/pub/institutes-instituts/bayfield/01_e.htm
Canadian Hydrographic Association: www.hydrography.ca
Photogrammetric surveyors specialize in the science of obtaining reliable spatial information from photographic images. Photogrammetrists analyze aerial and terrestrial photographs to obtain information about physical objects and the environment. The most common utilization of photogrammetry is in the production of base maps from aerial photography. Mapping generated using photogrammetry provides a cost-effective method of establishing an accurate digital base for such things as urban planning, terrain analysis and forest management. Photogrammetry can be used for landfill or gravel pit monitoring, determining the location of ore bodies or determining proposed locations for utilities, such as pipelines and transmission lines.
There are also many uses for non-aerial or close-range photogrammetry. These include digital modeling for architectural restoration, medical imaging for forensic sciences and reconstructive surgery, data collection for structural stability studies of bridges and hydroelectric dams, and the documentation of traffic accidents and crime scenes by police departments.
American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing www.asprs.org
International Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing www.isprs.org/isprs.html